ETS 會重複使用考題，超過 60% 的題目都是重考歷年的托福考題。ETS通常會給北美區學生考新題，給亞洲區學生考北美生考過的舊題，因此亞洲學生可以透過複習舊題準備自己的托福考試。
雖然 ETS 會重複使用考題，但托福的題庫畢竟是非常龐大的。不過，托福補習班會透過 “機經預測”，從龐大的題庫中挑出下次考試有極大可能出現的考題。
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2021/11/28 托福機經：30道綜合寫作 (Task 1) 預測考題
下面我們整理了 2021/11/28 托福考試的30道綜合寫作題（Task 1）的考題預測：
|閱讀內容||Palm oil 的生產有積極的影響，應該要擴大生產。|
2. 可以用於生產環境友好的 biodiesel。
|聽力內容||Palm oil 生產同時也會有消極的影響，不應該擴大生產。|
1. 種植雖然可以成為森林且需要的土地少，但是在以砍伐其他森林為目的的，也 是破壞了森林。
2. 可以用於生產 biodiesel，但是在砍伐完其他森林以後，需要焚燒 peat，這個 東西的燃燒會產生更多的二氧化碳，對環境不利
3. 是可以減少小規模生產的農民們的貧困，但是小規模生產的農民們對於palm oil 生產的控制時間並不長，隨後大的規模的生產機構也對palm oil 感興趣，這樣小規模生產的農民們將失去對palm oil 生產的控制，增收很少。
|題目||保護瀕危鳥類 Hermit Ibis。|
|閱讀內容||保護瀕危鳥類 Hermit Ibis 很困難，因為:|
1. habitat destruction 生存環境的破壞，大多由於人的佔用導致。
2. 附近捕食者 (比如禿鷹和烏鴉) 對幼鳥和蛋的攻擊. Eggs and juveniles are vulnerable to predators, but predators cannot be killed because they are also important to the ecosystem.
3. 保護瀕危物種通常科學家會raise them in captivity 然後release into the wild, 但是Hermit Ibis 是遷徙類動物，它們是從父母那裡學習how and where to migrate， 如果人工飼養然後放回大自然，它們無法生存。
1. hermit ibis 可以在很多地方築巢，人工搭建的棲息地，比如建築物的外牆。這 個不是問題。
2. 雖然 eggs and juveniles are vulnerable，但是
3. 人類也可以教給年幼的hermit ibis 如何遷徙，比如pilot 帶著年幼的hermit ibis 隨著它們遷徙的路線飛行，它們也可以學會如何遷徙，放回大自然後它們的生存就不會有任何問題。它們的天敵都比較膽小，只要 在 eggs and juvenile 成年之前人類通過吹哨子趕走天敵，Hermit Ibis 成年後生 活就沒有問題了。
|閱讀內容||1. Dating Error：因為土地沉降問題，所以 soil layer 對於時間上的證明是不准確的。|
3. British Farmers：當時英國還是以打獵為主，但是已經有部分的農民出現，只是沒有大圍出現而已。
|聽力內容||1. 這種情況很少見，而且因為英國的土壤非常 dense，這種 transportation 不太 可能發生，而且在小麥的地層沒有其他植物，所以不存在 transportation。|
3. 小麥有 reproduction process，所以一定會產生 pollen，但是只發現了同時 期其他植物的花粉，但是沒有小麥的花粉，所以也不存在
3. 不抓走 young belugas
3. 除非有 dams，否則很難做到
|閱讀內容||Build solar roads by paving glass, glass can absorb the sun’s energy and translate it into electricity.|
1. It is not a logical place. The roads are flat, not tilted.
2. Glass is not safe, especially in wet or icy condition
3. Will be very expensive.
1. It will be more efficient. The solar panel will produce more energy. It will reflect the sun on cloudy days not just in one direction but in many different directions.
2. A new kind of glass will solve the problem. The engineers have already researched for it, it will also useful on wet days.
3. The solar roads will produce more power which can be sold to other counties; its revenue can be the cost.
|題目||Hypothesis about why Vikings left Greenland in the 15th century (關於維京人離開格陵蘭島原因的幾個假設)|
|閱讀內容||1. Because of climate change the temperature got lower so the Vikings didn’t have enough food. (氣候變化導致農作物減產，食物不足)|
2. The Vikings were driven out by the local enemies. (維京人被當地人驅 趕出格陵蘭島)
3. The trade between the Vikings and the European countries was cut off by Norway. (挪威王室不允許維京人和歐洲其他國家通商)
|聽力內容||1. Vikings relied on fish for food and climate change didn’t change the ocean and the fish. (維京人以魚類為主食，並沒有面臨飢荒)|
2. When the Vikings left, they took away all their valuables and tidied up, if they were driven out they would have been in a rush. (維京人離開時整齊有序，並沒有落荒而逃的跡象)
3. The formal trade was cut off but the illegal and unofficial trade was still on-going. Even the Norwegian King complained about the illegal trade was hard to control (雖然正式的貿易被禁止了，但是非法的和私下的通商依舊繁榮)
|題目||Three possible theories of what a sea-dwelling microorganism’s eye might be for.|
|閱讀內容||1. The eye is used for following preys.|
2. The eye is used for sensing sunlight.
3. The eye is used for aiming at having a better accuracy at other tiny life-forms when it is going to stab them.
|聽力內容||1. Other closely-related microorganisms that have no eyes could follow their prey successfully. Therefore, their eyes must be for other purposes.|
2. Scientists studying the evolution of microorganisms find that they are becoming less and less dependent on sunlight for energy. Compared with their ancestors, the sea-dwelling microorganism is with a much more complex eye. So it must have other functions.
3. After examining the eye thoroughly, researchers find that its eye couldn’t focus quite well, thus not being able to have better accuracy at other tiny life-forms when stabbing them.
|題目||Three possible theories of why sturgeon fish jump into the air.|
|閱讀內容||1. They need to feed themselves by the insects in the air|
2. They want to remove the parasites on the scales.
3. They are aggressive when the tourists’ boats invade their territory.
|聽力內容||1. they don’t eat in the summer since they are fed in winter with enough, and they are bottom fed|
2. The most dangerous parasites are internal, not external, even some domesticated have external parasites.
3. The human invasion is accidental, even without the invasion, the fish also jumped.
3. 可以在 spaceship 上製造一個類似於地球磁場的防護罩，來阻擋太陽輻射的傷害
2016/09/10 上午 綜合寫作
1. written theories 有關文件記載
2. boat 研究人員造船試航
3. old marking 像航海家那個時代的 alphabetic
3. old markings 可能是土著的 carve pictures
|題目||Peru 沙漠裡的一種地形 Nazca lines，關於 Nazca lines 存在的三種理論。|
|閱讀內容||1. 作為 astronomical calendar，去跟踪一些特殊的 events，比如說冬至。也有發現表明它確實與一些天體有關係。|
2. For monumental arts, 總而彰顯當地的文化和地位及重要性。就像埃及見 金字塔一樣。
|聽力內容||1. 閱讀裡沒有提到有 sky 中很多天體這一事實， 所以閱讀裡所說的相關可能 只是偶然。|
2. 實際上這些 lines 很大，只有在高空中才可以看到它的全貌，而如果站在 附件的話，不能夠進行識別，也不會給人留下深刻的印象。
3. 這些 lines 有一些是 images of animals, too complex for human’s footstep.另外聽力推測，當地有宗教習慣是走一些不尋常的路徑，所以有可能這些 lines 是 religious ritual 留下來的。
|題目||Mysterious prints reported in an English newspaper.|
|閱讀內容||The reading points out three hypotheses to explain the mysterious prints.|
1. This was a kangaroo footprint.
2. It was made by a hot air balloon, which can be demonstrated by the broken rope and blots.
3. The whole story was invented although reported trustworthy.
|聽力內容||Refute the three explanations mentioned in the reading passage. |
1. Kangaroo’s sharp and powerful claws would make deep marks during long trails. And if the footprints were left by the fleeing kangaroo, there must have been reports about this incident, but there wasn’t.
2. There was a forest area in the way, and the hot air balloon would be entangled by tree branches and could not travel that long distance.
3. The report was based on reliable materials. For one thing, there’s a letter from Devin who found the footprints; For another thing, the newspaper office collected a lot of details about the print. Thus, the report wouldn’t be invented.
2016/09/10 下午 綜合寫作
1. 如果在太空的吸收器壞了。地面上要送一宇航員上去修理。這不僅非常花錢。而 且，到達太空時間非常長。這一段吸收器不工作的時間，許多原本能被吸收的能量 就浪費了。
2. 儘管彗星這種大的星體能夠避免。但是太空中的 space dust 科學家時無法跟踪 的。這些 dust 以非常高的速度運行，會給吸收器帶來非常大的熱量，從而造成損 害。
3. 這些吸收器在太空吸收完能量後，會以 beam 或 ray 的形式把能量發回地面。 Beam 和 ray 會對大氣層中的臭氧層造成損害，從而更多的紫外線會之間照射到人 類、動物和植物。人類和動物會產生許多健康問題。植物的產量也會因此而減少。
3. 大陸與島嶼之間有 400 km，因此旅途會很長，動物活不了那麼久
|閱讀內容||1. 把那些把森林與森林之間隔開的農田變成森林走廊，這樣森林之間就連上了。 |
1. 猴狐生活之外的森林對於它們來說很危險，即便退耕造林建起連接的走廊，它們 也不會走。
2. 不只有大量的人把狐猴抓起來做寵物，也會捕食它們，所以範圍太大，方法多樣， 很難有效管控。
3. 狐猴的種類很多，習性不同，針對不同狐猴進行飼養可能有 20 多種食物，這樣 可能很難保證飼養。
|題目||犀牛角非常的珍貴，以至於一些偷獵者不惜一切代價地獵殺犀牛，對犀牛的種群數 量造成了嚴重的影響。為了保護犀牛，人們想出一種辦法:把犀牛運到別的棲息地 (relocation plan), 防止偷獵者的捕殺。閱讀和聽力討論這種 relocation 的方法是否有效。|
1. 犀牛在 relocation 的過程中有 2%-5%的死亡率。眾所周知，犀牛是瀕危物種， 因此在運輸過程中造成犀牛死亡，這中做法是不可取的。
2. 犀牛有著非常緊密的種族社會關係，如果把犀牛 relocate 的話，就會造成公犀 牛和母犀牛的數量不平衡，會對犀牛的繁殖造成影響，此外它們的種族紐帶也會被 切斷。
3. relocation 不能完全防止偷獵者獵殺犀牛，因為犀牛角的價值很高，所以就算把 犀牛運到別的地方偷獵者還是會緊隨不放，所以不能從根本上解決問題。
1. 雖然犀牛在運輸途中不可避免地會發生傷亡，但是死亡的犀牛畢竟是少數。特別 是把運輸途中犀牛死亡率和盜獵者獵殺犀牛導致的死亡率對比時，會發現運輸途中 犀牛死亡數量遠遠低於盜獵者獵殺犀牛的數量。相比兩種情況，還是 relocation 更 好一些。
2. 閱讀中所提到的犀牛性別不平衡問題在進行 relocation 之前就可以避免。保護者們會挑選一定數量的公犀牛和母犀牛，保持比例平衡。另外帶著幼崽的母犀牛不 會進行 relocation，不會拆散它們的社會關係。
3. 把犀牛運到別的地方，那里地域廣闊，犀牛有很大的活動空間，盜獵者在如此大 的範圍之內發現犀牛非常困難。另外，有些地方人很難通過，偷獵者無法到達。
|題目||討論關於 birds anting 這一習性的三種解釋。|
|閱讀內容||Demonstrate three theories to explain why birds have the habit.|
1. Birds use anting to irrigate skin during feather change in summer.
2. The acid released during anting by ants can help resist parasites growing
3. Anting is a way for birds to feed on those ants.
|聽力內容||Refute the three explanations mentioned in the reading passage.|
1. It is just a coincidence between the time of feather change and bird anting.
2. Anting cannot reduce the growth of parasites on some birds.
3. Birds will have other things to rub themselves, but they do not tend to eat those things.
|題目||討論健康計劃 Wellness Programs (即公司推出獎勵計劃給達到 healthy-related goal 的員工) 是否對員工有益。|
|閱讀內容||Wellness Programs in the United States bring lots of benefits to companies and employees.|
1. The programs can become a motivational tool for people to lose weight and quit smoking, bringing a much healthier lifestyle.
2. Employees will be more inclined to take exercises and have wholesome diets through the motivation of the Wellness Programs.
3. Although the program might cost companies a great deal of money at the beginning, it saves more compared to the spending on employees’ sickness.
|聽力內容||The program does not work.|
1. The program may be an effective way to motivate employees in short term, but it cannot keep for a long period. Research shows that after several years, people are back to their bad habits.
2. The program is not fair for every employee, because cases differ. Some who have to take care of their family or cope with chores do not have enough time to exercise, while others are genetically fat.
3. Companies might suffer great financial loss in the long term because many employees will not stay in one company forever.
|題目||討論關於 40 年前黃腿山蛙數量下降的三種解釋。|
|閱讀內容||Demonstrate three theories to explain why the number of yellow-legged mountain frogs declined 40 years ago.|
1. A kind of fish, the trout, was introduced to this area and the trout ate tadpoles of the frogs.
2. The use of pesticides contaminated the habitat.
3. The frogs there were infected by a fungal disease.
|聽力內容||Refute the three explanations mentioned in the reading passage.|
1. The trout was introduced 100 years ago, but the decline happened 40 years ago. The time does not match.
2. Rainfall tends to wash the pesticides to lower and farther places. However, frogs lived in areas with a higher altitude than that of farms using pesticides.
3. Yellow-legged mountain frogs can produce some antibodies within their bodies so that they can resist the infection of fungal disease.
|題目||Mary Rose 號沉沒的原因。|
|閱讀內容||There are three reasons to explain why Mary Rose sank.|
1. The gun port was not closed after getting fire, but they forgot to close it. Water poured into the gun port.
2. Sailors dislike the captain and do not follow his lead.
3. French made significant damage to the ship.
|聽力內容||Refute the three reasons mentioned in the reading passage.|
1. According to a research, there were still some cannonballs in the gun port, which proved that it cannot be opened.
2. Mary rose is a flagship. Sailors are all capable, so they will not fail to follow the captain’s lead under such a dangerous situation.
3. Frenchmen told a lie in order to show that they were powerful than the English.
|題目||關於 Pearl Poet 是誰的三個假設。|
|閱讀內容||There are 3 possible hypotheses.|
1. John Massey might be possible, because he lived in northwestern England, where the poems came out, and the handwritings of John Massey and Pearl Poet are the same.
2. It might be Hugh, because he wrote poems about Garwin, and those 4 famous handwritten poems are also related to Garwin. What’s more, the poems all adopt the rhetorical method of alliteration.
3. The 4 poems might not be written by one person because the poems referred to different areas in England.
|聽力內容||None of the 3 hypotheses is reasonable.|
1. There was the same copier in the 14th century. That is why the handwritings are the same.
2. It cannot be Hugh because the dialect used in the poems of Pearl Poet and Hugh is totally different.
3. The poems cannot be made by several persons, because the wording of the 4 poems is very similar, which is impossible for different authors.
|閱讀內容||Three solutions can be used to lower the effect of wind turbines upon bats.|
1. The wind turbines should be built in areas far away from the migratory routes of the bats.
2. The wind turbines should be turned off at the night for bats are
3. Radars should be used to repel the bats, for the bats hate radar waves.
|聽力內容||Those three solutions are not feasible.|
1. The migratory routes of bats are exactly the places where wind turbines should be built, for if they are built-in the remote areas, such as flat plain, the wind speed will decline.
2. Though the bats are not active in the daytime, they will choose to sleep on tall structures, and the tops of the turbines are such places.
3. If bats meet the electromagnetic waves emitted by radars, those waves will prominently influence the reproductive systems of the bats.
|題目||prevent jellyfish booms from happening|
|閱讀內容||The writer puts forward three methods to address the problem.|
1. Use chemicals to destroy the problem.
2. Harvest for human consumption
3. The government makes stricter regulations, letting workers clean the ballast water.
|聽力內容||The measures are unconvincing.|
1. The remains of polyp would breed the next generation quickly. Besides, using chemical ways might destroy other species in the marine or other places.
2. Only 12 kinds of jellyfish are edible. And people can only eat one percent of them.
3. Boat companies and fishmen will not be willing to do so, for it wastes a lot of time and has a negative influence on their economic profits.
|閱讀內容||3 reasons can explain why toucan evolved a bill.|
1. Weapons against predators
2. Color and shape to hide from predator
3. Get rid of excess body heat
|聽力內容||None of the 3 reasons for the bill’s function is reasonable.|
1. It cannot function as a weapon. It is made of hollow bones filled with air, so it is thin and lightweight, or else it cannot fly. If it is used as a weapon, it will be easily damaged in activities like jabbing.
2. They have to call out to each other in order to use the color and shape to blend into surrounding areas. If they do this, they are going to draw attention from predators.
3. Healthy toucan does not use their bills. They need bills to get rid of heat in the daytime but at night when the temperature is lower, they do not. They then need to retain body heat.
|閱讀內容||Heinrich Schliemann discovered a golden mask of the warrior king. He claimed|
that the golden mask is the Mask of Agamemnon. However, the
archaeology industry suspects that the golden mask is fake. There are
three reasons for that.
1. Firstly, Schliemann has a reputation for faking his discovery and
excavation. He used to buy an antique from a craftsman and claim that the item is from ancient Greek until it was identified as a fake. Therefore, the golden mask is very suspicious and Schliemann is incredible.
2. Secondly, some features of the golden mask are different from the authentic golden masks from Ancient Greek. Ancient Greek golden masks have a very flat appearance and no pointed hairs. The golden mask of a warrior king discovered by Schliemann has very well-defined lips and a pointed beard. Therefore, the golden mask is fake.
3. Thirdly, Schliemann immediately shut down the site where the golden mask is discovered after he found the golden mask. This is very suspicious behavior. Usually, archeologists will continue to excavate the site in the hope of finding more cultural information about the discovery, such as the historical context, and identify whose mask it is. More information about the mask could have been discovered to identify the mask, however, Schliemann close the site in a rush, revealing his afraid of being found that the mask is a fake.
|聽力內容||Though many archeologists think the golden mask of the warrior king is fake, I think that is an authentic item from Ancient Greek. There are three reasons to refute the points in the passage.|
1. Firstly, Schliemann did have a reputation for faking discovery and excavation. However, for this mask, it’s not easy to fake. The Greek government is familiar with Schliemann’s reputation of dishonesty and specifically assigned a supervisor to closely supervise and monitor Schliemann’s work of excavation. If Schliemann really cheated on this discovery, it’s hard to do so without being caught by the supervisor.
2. Secondly, a golden mask of a lion from Ancient Greek, which was proved an authentic antique, was compared with the golden mask of the warrior king. The golden lion mask also has three-dimensioned lips and nose, and all pointed hair. All the features are comparable to the golden mask of the warrior king.
3. Thirdly, the timing of the site being shut down immediately after the golden mask was discovered can be explained. Schliemann was not a real archeologist but a treasure hunter. It f
2016/11/26 下午 綜合寫作
|閱讀內容||一些考古學家認為公元前兩千多年的 forts 不能起到很好的防禦作用|
1. 不是所有的 sides 都有 walls 所以很容易受到敵人攻擊
2. multiple entranceways, enemies are easy to enter
3. no evidence of water and wells, 當被包圍的時候很容易敗
1. 有些地方不用 walls 就可以起到防禦的， 比如有懸崖峭壁 cliff
2. 敵人發現 Spot 之前就 block 封鎖掉
3. 可能是之前挖的井乾了所以後人沒看到不代表沒有證據；不可能存在圍攻的問題，因為敵人不會一直 wait out 的
|閱讀內容||Suggestions to fight White Nose Syndrome (a kind of fungus that killed lots of North American bats in the past few years)|
1. One suggestion is restricting people to access the caves where bats live because fungus can be spread from cave to cave by riding on people’s clothes.
2. The second suggestion is studying a species of bats that is resistant to fungus.
3. The third suggestion is heating the cave.
|聽力內容||Refute the three explanations mentioned in the reading passage.|
1. The lecturer refutes the point by saying that people are not the main factors to help spread fungus, and it is bats themselves that spread the fungus because, in some cases where people cannot access it, there’s fungus still.
2. Resistance is formed during the process of complex biological evolution. And understanding the process needs decades. However, the bats will die out in 10 years if there’s no effective remedy.
3. Bats die because the fungus wakes them up and forces them to face starvation. If the caves are heated, bats will be unable to sleep and thus suffer starvation. Therefore this suggestion will make the situation worse
|題目||討論 the reasons for the death of Ichthyosaurs|
|閱讀內容||Three possible reasons|
1. They died of toxic algae.
2. They stranded in shallow water.
3. They were preserved in a pattern by other creatures.
|聽力內容||The reasons are not established.|
1. The fossils of ichthyosaurs show that they died at different times. Some were formed earlier than others.
2. According to the seafloor, it was deep water in the past.
3. These nine bones were put in order; however, this creature only put them at random.
|題目||The reason that causes the low production of rhino in parks|
|閱讀內容||Three causes can explain the low production of rhino in parks.|
1. Infertility results from the alfalfa and hay in animal fodder, which increasing its hormone.
2. Rhinos develop foot disease for often walking on the hard surface.
3. Brain disorder in the newborn rhinos makes them cannot live long.
|聽力內容||The listening argues against the three reasons mentioned in the reading.|
1. Infertility can be cured by regulating the rhino’s hormone.
2. Advanced radiographic image equipment can detect the early anomaly of the bone and feet, which can heal the foot disease.
3. The reason for the little rhino’s brain disorder is that its mother is so old that it carries a toxic chemical element. So letting a younger rhino bear child is one of the solutions.
|題目||hammer head shark 鎚頭鯊頭部的功能|
2. 試驗中，把鎚頭鯊和其它類型的鯊魚放在一個導線連接的有感應的池子裡， 所有的鯊魚對獵物的感知度一樣，鎚頭鯊並沒有體現出更高的敏感度。
|閱讀內容||Three ways to promote the products’ development.|
1. The company can launch a new version under existing products.
2. The company can launch related products.
3. The company can cooperate with another company to produce a new product.
|聽力內容||Those three ways are risky.|
1. The regular customers may still prefer the old products, while new customers may feel the products is old-fashioned.
2. The related products may have bad quality, which will exert a negative influence on the company’s reputation and make the sales decrease.
3. The partner company may also the new product, thus the partner
becomes the competitor.
|題目||whether the canned food is the factor that contributes to the lead poisoning and the death of crew in Kashyap.|
|閱讀內容||1. The lead that was carefully stilled to the can would not contact the food.|
2. No other evidence of the death of the crew was found in another ship.
3. Water purification system may be the source of poisoning.
|聽力內容||1. Company has limited time to finish this work. Workers are under time pressure and it is reasonable that they are careless and apply lead to the cans in a hurried way.|
2. First, it is difficult to judge whether sailors are affected by lead without careful tests. Second, the symptoms of lead poisoning are common, such as feeling tired or headache and they can be easily overlooked.
3. The water in the purification system is used for ship engineering since the saltwater cannot be used. The water for cooking and drinking comes from a different way.
2015/08/07 北美 綜合寫作
|題目||關於 saber-toothed cat(劍齒貓)是否是群居動物|
|閱讀內容||saber-toothed cat 是群居動物|
1. Fossils of saber-toothed cats with broken bones indicate that they were fed by other saber-toothed cats when they were injured
2. There are large numbers of saber-toothed cats in the trap. The sabertoothed cats hunted together. The sound of dears in the trap attracted them to fall in the trap together
3. Saber-toothed cats lived with other predators such as lions and wolves. Saber-toothed cats have to live in a group to compete with those
1. The fossils of saber-toothed cats with broken bones indeed indicate that they could survive when they were injured. However, it doesn’t necessarily mean that they have to be fed by other saber-toothed cats. Many predators can find dead animals to eat. So did the saber-toothed cats
2. The large numbers of saber-toothed cats in the trap doesn’t mean that they hunt together. The saber-toothed cats hunt separately. One of the saber-toothed cats heard the sound of the trapped dear, went to the trap, and fell. Then another saber-toothed cat also heard the sound of the trapped dear, came to the trap and fell again
3. Saber-toothed cats were large predators. Take tigers, for example, one tiger is strong enough to fight against social predators such as lions and wolves. So the saber-toothed cats don’t have to live together to compete with lions and wolves.
|題目||Arizona 發現一個 2 億年前的蟲子的巢化石是不是蜂巢|
1. 2 億年前還沒有蜜蜂，哪裡來的蜂巢；
2. 2 億年前連 flowering plants 都沒有，怎麼會有需要吃花蜜的蜜蜂；
3. 現代蜜蜂的巢都有個蓋子 cap，那個化石沒有，所以這個巢很可能是其他蟲子的。
1. 沒有發現有 200 百萬年前的蜜蜂化石不代表沒有 200 百萬年前的蜜蜂，那時候蜜蜂築巢的樹比較難留下來，所以沒有化石也正常。
2. 古時候的蜜蜂就一定要吃花蜜嗎？他們不能吃 nonflowering plants 嗎？
3. 沒有蓋子 cap 可能因為化學原因， 腐蝕掉了什麼的，再說為什麼要跟 modern bee 一樣呢？
|題目||Whether the decline of bison was caused by the European American settlers|
|閱讀內容||About bison, a kind of animal, something like cattle or horse. The passage suggests that the declining bison was due to the European American settlers:|
1. When European Americans cross prairies, they hunted bison as food because there is no food in prairies.
2. They brought cattle and horses, which competed with bison for
3. The evolving technology, especially guns, let hunters kill several bison in a short time.
|聽力內容||The professor contradicts each of these three points:|
1. The European Americans moved from east to west, but the bison decline in the western part of America. The pattern of how bison disappeared gradually was different from that of the movement of European Americans.
2. Bison have double furs covering their bodies and unique head structure, which allow them to live in harsher and colder areas. The areas were unreachable for cattle and horses. How could different spices compete with each other in separate territories?
3. The advanced technology should not be blameworthy for the
decreasing bison. The ancient methods are as effective as guts. Skilled ancient American hunters could kill several bison with short intervals.
|閱讀內容||有袋動物 marsupials 比無袋動物 placental 更原始。|
|題目||討論 wetland 裡面的鬼火（ will-o’-the-wisp）形成的原因是什麼|
|閱讀內容||There are 3 possible reasons.|
1. Protection against cold (losing heat).
2. Protection against fungal spores infection, block out water so insects have meanings of fungal infection.
3. Eliminate nighttime light, in order to track up to the regular time to produce flowers.
|聽力內容||1. The plants have no source of internal heating, so whether folding or unfolding suffer the same freezing damage.|
2. Even though the plants are folding, they cannot block out all the water and fungal spores only require a little water.
3. Some plants in densely shaded areas where no light is reaching still fold their leaves, therefore some other reasons may explain.
|閱讀內容||Three theories to explain how the Mima Mound is formed.|
1. Mima Mounds were formed by human labor because they were arranged in order.
2. Mima Mounds were caused by earthquakes. After shaking, the land becomes loose and reshape to the Mima Mound.
3. Build by pocket gopher to build a nest.
|聽力內容||These three theories are all unconvincing at all.|
1. It cannot be created by human labor because there are no human activities and remains to support the theory.
2. Earthquake is impossible to take place in where Mima Mound existed.
3. Besides, there was no enough earthquake to loosen the soil.
There are gophers nowadays, but no new Mima Mounds have been
2016/12/10 上午 綜合寫作
|題目||威脅 Inuktitut 加拿大語言的三個要素|
|閱讀內容||Inuktitut 這種語言是在加拿大一部分地區被人使用的語言，由於說這種語言的人很少，政府採取措施保護這種語言，但是很多人認為威脅這個語言的還有一些其他因素，列舉的三個威脅 Inuktitut 語言的因素如下：|
1. 調查表明，當地有少於 25%的 16 歲以下的人說這種語言，如果如此少的年輕人說這個語言的話，那麼它傳承下去的可能性比較小。
2. 當地很多的家長是漁民，需要用英語做生意，很多家長意識到了英語的重要性，於是讓孩子學習英語，這個也會威脅 Inuktitut 語。
3. 電視和其他的媒體方式對孩子的影響比較大，但是當地 Inuktitut 語言的電視節目比較少，且最近還關掉了兩個 Inuktitut 語言的節目。
|聽力內容||並沒有這麼多的其他因素可以影響到 Inuktitut 語言的使用情況。|
1. 調查的數據不准確，另一批研究人們研究表明，當地說 Inuktitut 語言的人並不是低於 25%，只是說傳統的 Inuktitut 語言的人比較少，大部分的人都是在使用現代版的 Inuktitut 語言。
2. 很多家長在意識到英語的重要性之後，讓孩子說兩種語言，及英語和 Inuktitut語言都使用。
3. 再一次的調查研究表明 Inuktitut 語言節目在當地不論是電視還是電台都有strong appearance,並不像文章中說的那樣。