托福寫作架構

托福寫作第 1 題(Task 1)架構完整分析,幫助你輕鬆拿滿分!

托福考試的寫作部分要求考生用英語寫作來表達自己,在今天這篇文章中,我們將要討論托福寫作第一題該如何架構。

我們把這題稱為”基於閱讀和聽力的寫作(Writing based on Reading and Listening)” 或”綜合寫作題(Integrated Writing Task),因為你必須把來自不同地方的資訊彙整到答案中,不像其他寫作題目只要寫下自己的看法即可。

現在就讓我們來看看托福寫作第一題該如何撰寫才能拿到高分吧!


托福綜合寫作題(Integrated Writing)概要

在考試的時候,考生必須使用閱讀文章和講座中的資訊來寫出答案。

首先,你會看到閱讀段落,你有三分鐘的時間可以閱讀這篇文章並做筆記。你的筆記不用非常詳細,因為作答的時候還是能再次看到這篇文章。

接著,你會聽到一個跟剛剛文章有關的講座。講座通常會和文章持不同的想法跟意見,換句話說,即使兩者都是討論相同話題,但文章跟講者持有不同的觀點。在聽力部分一定要做筆記,因為只有一次機會。

最後,你將會看到一個問題提示,在考試中,你必須在閱讀文章並聽取對話後才能看到提示。考生必須在 20 分鐘內完成答題,一個有效的答案通常需要寫 150-225 個字。


綜合寫作題詳細分析

了解題目形式後,接下來我們將針對題目各部分:閱讀段落、聽力講座跟寫作提示進行細部分析。

閱讀段落

文章通常會有四個段落,在第一段中,你會了解主題跟主要思想,然後接下來三段會解釋作者為什麼有這些意見。以下是一個典型的閱讀段落範例:

 Toward the end of his life, the Chevalier de Seingalt (1725-1798) wrote a long memoir recounting his life and adventures. The Chevalier was a somewhat controversial figure, but since he met many famous people, including kings and writers, his memoir has become a valuable historical source about European society in the eighteenth century. However, some critics have raised doubts about the accuracy of the memoir. They claim that the Chevalier distorted or invented many events in the memoir to make his life seem more exciting and glamorous than it really was.
      For example, in his memoir the Chevalier claims that while living in Switzerland, he was very wealthy, and it is known that he spent a great deal of money there on parties and gambling. However, evidence has recently surfaced that the Chevalier borrowed considerable sums of money from a Swiss merchant. Critics thus argue that if the Chevalier had really been very rich, he would not have needed to borrow money.
      Critics are also skeptical about the accuracy of the conversations that the Chevalier records in the memoir between himself and the famous writer Voltaire. No one doubts that the Chevalier and Voltaire met and conversed. However, critics complain that the memoir cannot possibly capture these conversations accurately, because it was written many years after the conversations occurred. Critics point out that it is impossible to remember exact phrases from extended conversations held many years earlier.
      Critics have also questioned the memoir’s account of the Chevalier’s escape from a notorious prison in Venice, Italy. He claims to have escaped the Venetian prison by using a piece of metal to make a hole in the ceiling and climbing through the roof. Critics claim that while such a daring escape makes for enjoyable reading, it is more likely that the Chevalier’s jailers were bribed to free him. They point out that the Chevalier had a number of politically well-connected friends in Venice who could have offered a bribe.

針對這篇文章,我們來進行詳細分析。第一段的結構很常見,前面幾句就提供背景資訊並確定主題,最後一句通常明確說明這篇文章的主要思想。

文章的主要思想:Critics claim that the Chevalier distorted or invented many events in his memoir.

接下來的三段解釋為什麼作者提出這種說法,每一段都提供一個特定的證據,解釋了為什麼評論家認為回憶錄包含”distorted or invented”事件。

  • 第一個證據:He borrowed a lot of money so they don’t think the Chevalier was rich.
  • 第二個證據:His description of conversations with Voltaire were written so long after they happened that they were impossible to remember so clearly.
  • 第三個證據:He could have simply bribed his jailers so they think the account of his escape through the ceiling is not likely what actually happened.

上面這些是你在閱讀文章時可以順便做的筆記,不過也可以不用寫這麼詳細,只需要紀錄一些重點,提醒自己在接下來聽力階段時要注意哪些重點就好。

聽力講座

當三分鐘閱讀時間結束後,接下來你將聽一場關於同一個主題的講座。在聆聽的時候,你將無法看到剛剛的文章,因此剛剛的筆記很重要。以下是講座的範例,考試時你無法看到文字,只能透過耳機聽這些內容:

(Female professor) No memoir can possibly be correct in every detail, but still, the Chevalier’s memoir is pretty accurate overall, and is, by and large, a reliable historical source. Let’s look at the accuracy of the three episodes mentioned in the reading.

First, the loan from the merchant. Well, that doesn’t mean that the Chevalier was poor. Let me explain. We know that in Switzerland, the Chevalier spent huge amounts of money on parties and gambling, and he had wealth. But it was a kind of property you have to sell first to get money. So it usually took a few days to convert his assets into actual money. So when he ran out of cash, he had to borrow some while he was waiting for his money to arrive, but that’s not being poor.

Second, the conversations with Voltaire. The Chevalier states in his memoir that each night immediately after conversing with Voltaire, he wrote down everything he could remember about that particular night’s conversation. Evidently the Chevalier kept his notes of these conversations for many years and referred to them when writing the memoir. Witnesses who lived with the Chevalier in his later life confirmed that he regularly consulted notes and journals when composing the memoir.

Third, the Chevalier’s escape from a prison in Venice. Other prisoners in that prison had even more powerful friends than he did, and none of them were ever able to bribe their way to freedom, so bribery hardly seems likely in his case. The best evidence, though, comes from some old Venetian government documents. They indicate that soon after the Chevalier escaped from the prison, the ceiling of his old prison room had to be repaired. Why would they need to repair a ceiling unless he had escaped exactly as he said he did?

如你所見,講座的架構跟閱讀段落非常相似,演講者在開頭就表達了她的主要觀點,因此你也可以大概抓到需要做筆記的重點在哪邊。

講座的主要思想:memoir…pretty accurate overall…reliable

接下來的三段,教授同樣提到跟閱讀文章一樣的證據,可是她針對這三個證據有不同的解釋:

  • 第一個證據:Borrowing money doesn’t mean that he was poor; he was just waiting for his own money to arrive.
  • 第二個證據:He didn’t try to remember the conversations long after they happened; he used notes taken immediately after the conversations to write his memoir.
  • 第三個證據:There is no evidence to support the critics claims of bribery; there is evidence of his escape because there was damage to the ceiling.

寫作提示

閱讀完文章並聽完講座後,接下來題目就會出現。題目類型基本上都類似,但一些措辭可能會有不同,這取決於文章跟講座之間的關係。

但是,這些提示有兩個共同點,第一是題目會要求考生總結講座中的重點,第二則是解釋講座與文章之間的關係。

換句話說,你的答案必須包含下面這三個重點:

  1. 閱讀的資訊(Information from the reading)
  2. 講座的資訊(Information from the lecture)
  3. 你對這些內容關係的解釋(Your explanation of the relationship between these things)

常見的寫作提示會長得像這樣:Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they respond to the specific points made in the reading passage.

而針對不同類型的閱讀段落跟講座,你可能也會看到以下不同版本的題目,例如:

  • Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they cast doubt on specific points made in the reading passage.
  • Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they respond to the challenges presented in the reading passage.

無論題目長什麼樣子,它們的任務都是相同的:解釋你讀到和聽到內容之間的關係


高分回答的結構分析

通常,考生不確定要怎麼寫出高分答案:我應該先寫講座重點嗎?還是先寫閱讀重點?還是我應該把它們混在一起寫?

雖然這類型文章沒有單一或正確的結構,但是我們可以用寫作提示本身來引導自己。

首先,我們要如何呈現資訊?按照什麼資訊?在這裡你應該要記住,講座中的重點「回應文章中提出的具體重點」。講者在演講開始時提到了閱讀段落,事實上,她把整個討論建立在對文章證據的「回應」。因此,你的答案應該也要做同樣的事情,先從文章中討論一個觀點,然後回應,這是最有意義的。

其次,我們是否要先對閱讀段落中的所有重點進行總結,然後再對講座中的重點進行完整說明?這部分題目有給我們提示,考生的任務是「解釋講座中的觀點如何回應文章觀點」。

根據上面這些想法,一個合乎邏輯、易於使用且分數會比較高的寫作架構會長得像下面這樣:

  1. 閱讀段落主要思想:Critics claim that the Chevalier distorted or invented many events in his memoir.
  2. 聽力講座的主要思想:memoir…pretty accurate overall…reliable.
  3. 閱讀證據 1:He borrowed a lot of money so they don’t think the Chevalier was rich. 
  4. 講座證據 1:Borrowing money doesn’t mean that he was poor; he was just waiting for his own money to arrive.
  5. 閱讀證據 2:His description of conversations with Voltaire were written so long after they happened that they were impossible to remember so clearly.
  6. 講座證據 2:He didn’t try to remember the conversations long after they happened; he used notes taken immediately after the conversations to write his memoir.
  7. 閱讀證據 3:He could have simply bribed his jailers so they think the account of his escape through the ceiling is not likely what actually happened. 
  8. 講座證據 3:There is no evidence to support the critics claims of bribery; there is evidence of his escape because there was damage to the ceiling.

而我們前面有提到,這道寫作題目通常需要寫 150-225 個字,而上面這些內容其實已經有 150 字了。因此我們要做的事情就是解釋這些內容之間的關係,然後把這些資訊串起來。

開頭段落

架構:

  • The reading passage tells us…
  • The lecturer responds by saying…
  • responds by saying…

例句:The reading passage tells us critics claim that the Chevalier de Seingalt distorted or invented many events in his memoir. The lecturer responds by saying that the memoir is actually pretty accurate and reliable.

從上面的句子中,我們清楚講明了三件事:哪些資訊來自閱讀段落、哪些資訊來自講座,以及它們之間的關係,這是一個非常好的介紹型起頭。

接下來,你可以根據三個證據分別開設三個段落進行討論,不過這不是必須,如果你想用一個長段落討論它們也可以,分數上不會受到影響。

當然,如果你希望讓整個文章看起來更好閱讀、調理更清晰,那麼分段寫會是更好的方式。

證據 1 討論段落

架構:

  • The first piece of evidence that the critics use…
  • The professor agrees… but…
  • but for a different reason…

例句:The first piece of evidence that the critics use to support their claim is that the Chevalier needed to borrow money. They say that this shows he was not rich. The professor agrees that the Chevalier borrowed money, but for a different reason. He was waiting for his own money to arrive.

與上一個段落類似,我們先告訴讀者這個資訊來自哪裡,然後再強調教授的回應。在這種情況下,教授同意證據存在,但是她有不同的解釋,因此我們使用”but“突顯兩個觀點之間的關係。

證據 2 討論段落

架構:

  • The second piece of evidence presented by the critics
  • On this point, the professor thinks
  • However… they are mistaken.

例句:The second piece of evidence presented by the critics was the impossibility of remembering the detailed conversations in the Chevalier’s memoirs for so many years. However, on this point, the professor thinks they are mistaken. This was not actually how he wrote his memoir. Instead, it was based on careful notes made right after the conversations.

這一段基本上與證據 1 的結構相同,在這裡我們使用”however“來突顯閱讀文章跟講座觀點之間的差異。

證據 3 討論段落

架構:

  • The final claim made by the critics…
  • according to the professor
  • not supported by evidence… In fact

例句:The final claim made by the critics that the Chevalier did not escape from jail but instead used bribery is not supported by evidence at all, according to the professor. In fact, while there is no evidence of bribery, she says there is evidence of his escape because the ceiling was damaged.

在最後一段中,”in fact” 這個片語突出了教授的回應,並把她的證據與批評者缺乏的證據進行對比。


寫作 task 1 高分回答的範例

總結上面的架構,現在讓我們看看完整答案會長什麼樣子:

The reading passage tells us critics claim that the Chevalier de Seingalt distorted or invented many events in his memoir. The lecturer responds by saying that the memoir is actually pretty accurate and reliable.

The first piece of evidence that the critics use to support their claim is that the Chevalier needed to borrow money. They say that this shows he was not rich. The professor agrees that the Chevalier borrowed money, but for a different reason. He was waiting for his own money to arrive. 

The second piece of evidence presented by the critics was the impossibility of remembering the detailed conversations in the Chevalier’s memoirs for so many years. However, on this point, the professor thinks they are mistaken. This was not actually how he wrote his memoir. Instead, it was based on careful notes made right after the conversations.

The final claim made by the critics that the Chevalier did not escape from jail but instead used bribery is not supported by evidence at all, according to the professor. In fact, while there is no evidence of bribery, she says there is evidence of his escape because the ceiling was damaged.

這個答案的長度大約 195 個字,正好符合題目的字數規定範圍。希望這樣的架構解析、有邏輯的順序能幫助你寫出高分答案。


托福寫作要如何練習?

我們建議學生多利用 TOEFL Mocks 做免費的寫作考題,透過免費的托福官方真題,學生可以體驗不同的托福寫作題目,嘗試把我們提供的模板應用在自己的答案裡:


托福寫作要補習嗎?怎麼補習效果會最好?

在正常情況下,我們不太推薦學生報名團體托福寫作課,其實只要學生依照我們提供的模板多加練習,就可以得到非常大的進步了。

如果還是卡關不行的話,我們建議學生報名 Ivy-Way 的一對一托福寫作精華課,針對學生口說的弱點對症下藥,正常情況下只需要 1-2 堂課就可以拿到寫作ˋ的 25-28 分喔!


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