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過去這個週末學生考了 2019 年 5 月的 SAT 考試。如果這是你最後一次考 SAT，恭喜你完成了一個艱難的任務！
這裡，我們整理了 2019 年 5 月 SAT 考試當中的 5 篇閱讀文章，幫助學生準備未來的考試。
首先，讀這些文章。你覺得他們讀起來很簡單還是很難？裡面有沒有很多生字，尤其是那些會影響你理解整篇文章的生字？如果有的話，雖然你可能是在美國讀書或讀國際學校、也知道 “如何讀跟寫英文”，但你還沒有足夠的生字基礎讓你 “達到下一個階段” （也就是大學的階段）。查一下這一些字，然後把它們背起來。這些生字不見得會在下一個 SAT 考試中出現，但是透過真正的 SAT 閱讀文章去認識及學習這些生字可以大大的減低考試中出現不會的生字的機率。
在我們的 Ivy-Way Reading Workbook（Ivy-Way 閱讀技巧書）的第一章節裡，我們教學生在閱讀文章之前要先讀文章最上面的開頭介紹。雖然你的 SAT 考試不會剛好考這幾篇文章，但你還是可以透過這些文章找到它們的來源，然後從來源閱讀更多相關的文章。舉例來說，如果你看第二篇文章 “The Problem with Fair Trade Coffee”，你會看到文章是來自 Stanford Social Innovation Review。閱讀更多來自 Stanford Social Innovation Review 的文章會幫助你習慣閱讀這種風格的文章。
- 文學 (literature)：1 篇經典或現代的文學文章（通常來自美國）
- 歷史 (History)：1 篇跟美國獨立/創立相關的文章，或者一篇受到美國獨立 / 創立影響的國際文章（像是美國憲法或者馬丁路德金恩 (Martin Luther King Jr.) 的演說）
- 人文 (Humanities)：1 篇經濟、心理學、社會學、或社會科學的文章
- 科學 (Sciences)：1-2 篇地理、生物、化學、或物理的文章
- 雙篇文 (Dual-Passages)：0-1 篇含有兩篇同主題的文章
所有 2019 年 5 月 (北美) SAT 考試閱讀文章
This passage is adapted from Colm Toibin, The master. 02004 by Colm Toibin. The novel is based on the life of writer Henry James (1843-1916).
On one of his strolls in Rye, Henry stopped at the door of Mr. Milson, who after the first meeting greeted him instantly as Mr. James, and knew him as e the American writer, having his walk in a Rye he was slowly growing to admire and love. Upon his second or third conversation with Mr. Milson, during his time as a resident of Point Hill, he observed that he longed for a permanent spot in the area, in the countryside, or indeed in the town itself Since Mr. Milson enjoyed talking, and since he was not interested in literary matters, and since he had not been to America and knew no other Americans, and ice Henry’s knowledge of ironmongery was rudimentary the two men discussed houses, ones which had been for rent in the past, others which had been put on the market or sold or withdrawn, and others, much coveted, which had never been bought or sold or rented, in living memory. Each time he visited, once they had initiated their subject, Mr. Milson showed him the card on which Henry’s London address was inscribed. He had not mislaid it, he had not forgotten, he insisted, and then enticingly would mention some great old house, perfect for a bachelor’s needs, but sorrowfully would have to admit that the house remained firmly in its owner’s hands and seemed unlikely to leave them in the foreseeable future.
Henry viewed his conversations with Mr. Milson as a.form.of play, just as his conversations with fishermen about the sea, or with farmers about the harvest, were forms of polite relaxation, a way of drinking in. England allowing its flavors to come to him in phrases, turns of speech and local references. Thus even when he opened the letter which arrived at his.London address, having noticed that the handwriting on the envelope was not that of someone accustomed to writing letters, and even when he saw the name Milson as the sender, he was still puzzled by its provenance. Only when he read it a second time did he realize who it was from and then, as though he had received a blow in the stomach, he understood what the letter said. Lamb House in Rye had fallen vacant, Milson told him, and could be had. His first thought was that he would lose it, the house at the quiet corner at the top of a cobbled hill whose garden room Edward Warren had drawn so lovingly, the establishment he had glanced at so achingly and covetously on his many tours of Rye, a house both modest and grand, both central and secluded, the sort of house which seemed to belong so comfortably and naturally to others and to be inhabited so warmly and fruitfully by them. He checked the postmark. He wondered if his ironmonger was freely broadcasting the news of this vacancy to all corners. This was, more than any other, the house he loved and longed for. Nothing had ever come easily, magically like this. He could do what he liked, he could send a cable, he could take the next train, but he remained sure that he would lose it. There was no purchase, however, in thinking, or regretting or worrying: there was only one solution and that was to rush to Rye, thus insuring that no omission on his part could cause him not to become the new inhabitant of Lamb House.
Before he left he wrote to Edward Warren, imploring him to come to Rye also as soon as he could to inspect the inside of the house whose exterior he had so admired. But he could not wait for Warren and he certainly could not work, and on the train he wondered if anyone watching him would know how momentous this journey was for him, how exciting and how potentially disappointing. He knew that it was merely a house; others bought and sold houses and moved their belongings with ease and nonchalance. It struck him as he traveled towards Rye that no one, save himself, understood the meaning of this. For so many years now he had had no country, no family, no establishment of his own, merely a flat in London where he worked. He did not have the necessary shell, and his exposure over the years had left him nervous and exhausted and fearful. It was as though he lived a life which lacked a facade, a stretch of frontage to protect him from the world. Lamb House would offer him beautiful old windows from which to view the outside: the outside, in turn, could peer in only at his invitation.
This passage and accompanying figure are adapted from World Development Report 2015: Mind, Society, and Behavior. ©2015 by International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank.
Behind every intervention lies an assumption about human motivation and behavior. When a tunnel providing water to the city of Bogota, Colombia, partially collapsed in 1997, triggering a water shortage, the city government declared a public emergency and initiated a communication program to warn inhabitants of the threat of a crisis: 70 percent of the city would be left without water if current water use was not reduced.
The city’s strategy was based on the assumption that if individuals were informed of the situation, they would adjust their behavior and reduce usage—after all, no one wants to be without water. But the assumption was wrong. In fact, the city’s strategy increased water consumption. Many people did not change their behavior because they did not think they could make a difference and did not know which steps were most important. Some people even started to stockpile water.
Recognizing the mistake in its assumptions, the city government changed its strategy. First, the government reminded people to take action by conserving water at times when they were most likely to overuse it. Stickers featuring a picture of a statue of San Rafael—which was the name of the emergency reservoir the city was relying on after the tunnel collapse–were distributed throughout the city. People were asked to place a sticker by the faucet that a particular household, office, or school used most frequently. The stickers made the need to conserve water at all times salient. Daily reports of the city’s water consumption were prominently published in’ the country’s major newspapers. The reports became apart of public discussions about the emergency.
Second, the city government launched engaging and entertaining campaigns to teach individuals the most effective techniques for household water conservation. The campaigns contained memorable slogans and organized 4,000 youth volunteers to go throughout the city to inform people about the emergency and teach them effective strategies to reduce consumption. The mayor himself appeared in a TV ad taking a shower, explaining how the tap could be turned off while soaping.
Third, the city government publicized information about who was cooperating and who was not The chief executive officer of the water company personally awarded households with exceptional water savings a poster of San Rafael with the legend, “Here we follow a rational plan for using the precious liquid.” These awards were made visible in the media. Three months later, when a second . tunnel collapsed in the reservoir, the city imposed ‘. sanctions for despilfarradores (squanderers), those with the highest levels of overconsumption. While the sanctions were minor—squanderers had to participate in a water-saving workshop and were subject to an extra day of water cuts—they were nevertheless effective because they targeted highly visible actors. Car-washing businesses, although collectively not a major source of water waste, were the primary targets.
The assumption underlying the new strategy was that conservation would improve if the city created a greater scope for social rewards and punishments that helped to reassure people that achieving the public good—continued access to water—was likely. This time, the assumption was correct. The change in strategy helped to create a social norm of water conservation. By the eighth week of the campaign, citywide water savings had significantly exceeded even the most optimistic technical predictions. Moreover, the reductions in water use persisted long after the tunnel was repaired and the emergency had been addressed.
This passage is adapted from Ed Yong, ‘Razzle Dazzle ‘Ern.” .02014 by Reed Business information Ltd.
In 1909, the prevailing belief was that animals hid themselves by matching their surroundings. Then the painter and naturalist Abbott Handerson Thayer inc suggested a different mechanism was at work: highly 5 conspicuous markings, such as the zebra’s stripes and the oystercatcher’s black-and-white plumage, are actually disguises. Predators, he reasoned, locate their prey by looking for their outlines, so animals with high-contrast markings that disrupt telltale to edges and create false ones can evade detection.
With this and other ideas about animal markings, Thayer earned himself the title “father of camouflage”. But although disruptive camouflage was cited in countless textbooks, it remained largely untested until 2005, when limes Cuthill, Martin Stevens and their colleagues at the University of Bristol, United Kingdom, devised an experiment using fake moths made from paper triangles. By pinning them to oak trees, the researchers found that “moths” with black markings on their edges were less likely to be attacked by birds than those with central markings or uniform colors. “It showed that disruption was indeed a very good way of being hidden,” says Stevens, now at the University of Exeter, United Kingdom. Using a similar approach, he and Cuthill later discovered that high-contrast markings become less effective once their contrast exceeds that in the creatures natural environment. One way to avoid this is for some parts of the body to blend in while others stand out.
Cuthill and Stevens revived interest in disruptive camouflage, but the first mil insights into just how’ a works cattle only last year. Richard Webster at Carleton University in Ottawa, Canada, asked volunteers to search for virtual moths on a computer screen wt in eye-tracker monitored their gaze. “We could d st get inside people’s eyes,” he says. He found that the more patches moths had on their edges, the more often volunteers failed to notice ) them, and they needed to fixate their gaze on them for longer to have any chance of spotting them. The eye-tracking vindicated Thayer again: by breaking up an animal’s outline, disruptive camouflage does impair a predator’s ability to spot its prey.
Although instructive, the experiment had an obvious shortcoming: humans do not prey on moths. let alone computer-generated ones. To test whether disruptive coloring fools its intended audience, o Stevens has started field trials. In Zambia and South Africa, his team is studying ground-nesting birds that rely on disruptive camouflage, including nightjars and plovers. His team measures the patterns on the birds’ feathers to quantify how well hidden they are 5 in their environment. They also track the birds’ survival to determine how effectively they evade predators.
Nightjars and plovers are difficult to spot in the first place, so the researchers have employed sharp sighted local guides to help find them. This raises the question of whether predators, like the guides, might be less easily fooled by disruptive markings as they become more familiar with them. Last year, Stevens and his team found that people do gradually get better at spotting virtual moths, especially if they see several at the same time. He suspects that the volunteers learn to stop the futile search for outlines, and instead start scanning for the high-contrast -markings.
Whether non-human predators adopt the same tactic is hard to say. They may not even see camouflage markings in the same way that we do. But if predators can learn to see through disruptive camouflage, it would suggest that this concealment strategy is more likely to evolve in prey that face short-lived or generalist predators than long-lived or specialist ones.
Passage 1 is adapted from a speech delivered to the United Nations General Assembly on 1948 by Eleanor Roosevelt “On the Adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights”. Passage 2 is adapted from Eric Posner, “The Case against Human Rights” 2014 by Guardian News and Media Limited.
In giving our approval to the Declaration today it is of primary importance that we keep clearly in mind the basic character of the document. It is not a treaty; it is not an international agreement. It is not and does not purport to be a statement of law or of legal obligation. It is a Declaration of basic principles of human rights and freedoms, to be stamped with the approval of the General Assembly by formal vote of its members, and to serve as a common standard of achievement for all peoples of all nations.
We stand today at the threshold of a great event both in the life of the United Nations and in the life of mankind….
At a time when there are so many issues on which we find it difficult to reach a common basis of agreement, it is a significant fact that 58 states have found such a large measure of agreement in the complex field of human rights. This must be taken as – testimony of our common aspiration first voiced in the Charter of the United Nations to lift men, everywhere to a higher standard of life and to a greater enjoyment of freedom. Man’s desire for peace lies behind this Declaration. The realization that the flagrant violation of human rights by Nazi and Fascist countries sowed the seeds of the last world war has supplied the impetus for the work which .) brings us to the moment of achievement here today. In a recent speech in Canada,-Gladstone Murray said:
The central fact is that man is fundamentally a moral being, that the light we have is imperfect does not matter so long as we are always trying to improve it are equal in sharing the moral freedom that distinguishes us as men. Man’s status makes each individual an end in himself. No man is by nature simply the servant of the state or of another man the ideal and fact of freedom—and not technology—are the true distinguishing marks of our civilization.
This Declaration is based upon the spiritual fact that man must have freedom in which to develop his full stature and through common effort to raise the level of human dignity. We have much to do to fully achieve and to assure the rights set forth in this Declaration. But having them put before as with the moral backing of 58 nations will be a great step forward.
Many people argue that the incorporation of the idea of human rights into international law is one of the great moral achievements of human history. Because human rights law gives rights to all people regardless of nationality, it deprives governments of their traditional riposte when foreigners criticise them for abusing their citizens—namely “sovereignty” (which is law-speak for “none of your business”),Thus, international human rights law provides people with invaluable protections against the power of the state.
And yet it is hard to avoid the conclusion that governments continue to violate human rights with impunity. Why, for example, do more than 150 countries (out of 193 countries that belong to the UN) engage in torture? Why has the number of authoritarian countries increased in the last several years? Why do women remain a subordinate class in nearly all countries of the world? Why do children continue to work in mines and factories in so many countries?
The truth is that human rights law has failed to accomplish its objectives. There is little evidence that human rights treaties, on the whole, have improved the wellbeing of people. The reason is that human rights were never as universal as people hoped, and the belief that they could be forced upon countries as a matter of international law was shot through with misguided assumptions from the very beginning….
Although the modern notion of human rights emerged during the 18th century, it was on December 10, 1948, that the story began in earnest, with the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the UN general assembly. The declaration arose from the ashes of the second world war and aimed to launch a new, brighter era of international relations….
The weaknesses that would go on to undermine human rights law were there from the start. The universal declaration was not a treaty in the formal sense: no one at the time believed that it created legally binding obligations. It was not ratified by nations but approved by the general assembly, and the UN charter did not give the general assembly the power to make international law. Moreover, the rights were described in vague, aspirational terms, which could be interpreted in multiple ways.
This passage is adapted from Sid Perkins, ‘Can Sea Monkeys Stir the Sear 02014 by American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Winds, waves, and tides are crucial for mixing the surface waters of lakes and seas, transporting heat downward and simultaneously bringing “e nutrient-rich waters up to the surface where lights harvesting phytoplankton need them to thrive. But small marine creatures help such processes as they migrate to the ocean surface each night to forage and then return to the relative safety of unlit depths during daylight hours, some researchers think. One to of the most familiar of these travelers, known to kids worldwide as the sea monkey, is the brine shrimp Artemia salina, says John Dabiri, a fluid dynamicist at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). Although the small swirls created by the fast-Is churning legs of a single sea monkey are not strong enough to significantly stir the seas, the eddies kicked up by billions of them might do the trick, Dabiri and others have proposed. To test the notion, he and Monica Wilhelmus, also of Caltech, measured the tiny currents triggered by artificially induced migrations of brine shrimp in the lab.
Dabiri and Wilhelmus used blue andgreen lasers…- to induce thousands of 5-millimeter-long brine shrimp to “migrate” to and from the bottom of a 1.2-meter-deep tank. The creatures are strongly attracted to those colors, Dabiri says. The researchers shone the blue laser into the tank and moved it slowly up and down to control the crustaceans vertical movements. The tank’s solid walls could strongly affect the flow patterns generated by the shrimp as they swam, so the researchers kept the shrimp away from the edges of the tank by shining the green laser beam directly down into the center. To help visualize the swirls and eddies generated by the shrimp, the researchers added copious amounts of silver-coated mirospheres to the water and illuminated them with a red laser, a color that doesn’t seem to affect the Shrimps’ behavior.
The team’s high-speed videos of the teeming, laser-lit migrations captured images of swirls much larger than the creatures themselves, which resulted from the interactions of smaller flows created by individuals. The larger the swirls, the more effective the mixing might be, Dabiri says. “So even for slow migrations, there could be strong effects,” he notes.
Previous studies suggest that light-harvesting phytoplankton, the base of the ocean’s food chain, collect about 60 terawatts of solar energy, Dabiri says. Even if marine organisms that consume phytoplankton convert only 1% of that power into mixing the oceans, that’s collectively comparable to the mixing power of winds and tides, Dabiri and Wilhelmus report.”
“This is a really innovative experimental setup. that provides a nice illustration of flow velocities,” says Christian Noss, a fluid dynamicist at the A. University of Koblenz-Landau. Jeannette Yen, a biological oceanographer at the Georgia Institute of Technology, agrees. “I like the idea of using (the shrimps’] behavior to lure them to the camera,” she says.
But scientists disagree on how effective billions of churning sea monkey legs might be in blending ocean layers that are hundreds of meters deep. “I wouldn’t want to say just yet that [biomixing] is important at a global scale” solely based on a lab -experiment, says Stephen Monismith, a fluid mechanicist at Stanford University. Andre Visser, a physical oceanographer at the Technical University of Denmark, agrees. “Most of the energy (from the shrimp] probably goes into heating the water” rather than mixing it, he says.
In fact, the upper and lower layers of the seas have measurable differences in density, a stratification that, according to theory, would reduce the efficiency of any biomixing. And subsequently, experiments similar to Dabiri’s suggested that stratification stifles mixing. In that research, Noss and colleague Andreas Lorke, also of Koblenz-Landau, studied the effects of large crowds of aquatic creatures called Daphnia (commonly known as water fleas) as they migrated up and down in a tank of mildly stratified water. As expected, the stratification squelched the biomixing generated by the swimming Daphnia, Noss says. Those results aren’t surprising, Visser says. “It’s difficult to lift heavy water up and to push light water down.”
Dabiri and his colleagues’ next set of lab experiments will look at the effects of sea monkey migrations in stratified waters, he says. Those experiments should reveal whether sea monkeys are better mixers than water fleas.
2019年 5月 (北美) SAT 考試閱讀題目
Also in: 简中 (简中)