IB Physics

IB Physics SL vs. HL: 差別在哪?要如何選擇?

IB物理並不是一堂容易的課程,但假如學生對這門課有興趣,甚至大學想讀領域相關的主修,那你就應該要知道IB Physics SL和HL有什麼差別,以及應該如何選擇。一起來看看我們整理的課程資訊吧!

IB Physics SL vs. HL: 課程核心

IB Physics SL和HL都涵蓋8個主題、總共95小時的課程,以下是詳細的課程主題說明:

主題1:測量和不確定性(Measurements and Uncertainties)- SL和HL各5小時

SubtopicIB Points to Understand
Measurements in physics⦾ Fundamental and derived SI units
⦾ Scientific notation and metric multipliers
⦾ Significant figures
⦾ Orders of magnitude
⦾ Estimation
Uncertainties and errors⦾ Random and systematic errors
⦾ Absolute, fractional and percentage uncertainties
⦾ Error bars
⦾ Uncertainty of gradient and intercepts
Vectors and scalars⦾ Vector and scalar quantities
⦾ Combination and resolution of vectors

主題2:力學(Mechanics)- SL和HL各22小時

SubtopicIB Points to Understand
Motion⦾ Distance and displacement
⦾ Speed and velocity
⦾ Acceleration
⦾ Graphs describing motion
⦾ Equations of motion for uniform acceleration
⦾ Projectile motion
⦾ Fluid resistance and terminal speed
Forces⦾ Objects as point particles
⦾ Free-body diagrams
⦾ Translational equilibrium
⦾ Newton’s laws of motion
⦾ Solid friction
Work, energy and power⦾ Kinetic energy
⦾ Gravitational potential energy
⦾ Elastic potential energy
⦾ Work done as energy transfer
⦾ Power as rate of energy transfer
⦾ Principle of conservation of energy
⦾ Efficiency
Momentum and impulse⦾ Newton’s second law expressed in terms of rate of change of momentum
⦾ Impulse and force–time graphs
⦾ Conservation of linear momentum
⦾ Elastic collisions, inelastic collisions and explosions

主題3:熱學(Thermal Physics)- SL和HL各11小時

SubtopicIB Points to Understand
Thermal concepts⦾ Molecular theory of solids, liquids and gases
⦾ Temperature and absolute temperature
⦾ Internal energy
⦾ Specific heat capacity
⦾ Phase change
⦾ Specific latent heat
Modelling a gas⦾ Pressure
⦾ Equation of state for an ideal gas
⦾ Kinetic model of an ideal gas
⦾ Mole, molar mass and the Avogadro constant
⦾ Differences between real and ideal gases

主題4:波(Waves)- SL和HL各15小時

SubtopicIB Points to Understand
Oscillations⦾ Simple harmonic oscillations
⦾ Time period, frequency, amplitude, displacement and phase difference
⦾ Conditions for simple harmonic motion
Travelling waves⦾ Travelling waves
⦾ Wavelength, frequency, period and wave speed
⦾ Transverse and longitudinal waves
⦾ The nature of electromagnetic waves
⦾ The nature of sound waves
Wave characteristics⦾ Wavefronts and rays
⦾ Amplitude and intensity
⦾ Superposition
⦾ Polarization
Wave behaviour⦾ Reflection and refraction
⦾ Snell’s law, critical angle and total internal reflection
⦾ Diffraction through a single-slit and around objects
⦾ Interference patterns
⦾ Double-slit interference
⦾ Path difference
Standing waves⦾ The nature of standing waves
⦾ Boundary conditions
⦾ Nodes and antinodes

主題5:電力與磁力(Electricity and Magnetism)- SL和HL各15小時

SubtopicIB Points to Understand
Electric fields⦾ Charge
⦾ Electric field
⦾ Coulomb’s law
⦾ Electric current
⦾ Direct current (dc)
⦾ Potential difference
Heating effect of electric currents⦾ Circuit diagrams
⦾ Kirchhoff’s circuit laws
⦾ Heating effect of current and its consequences
⦾ Resistance expressed as R = V/I
⦾ Ohm’s law
⦾ Resistivity
⦾ Power dissipation
Electric cells⦾ Cells
⦾ Internal resistance
⦾ Secondary cells
⦾ Terminal potential difference
⦾ Electromotive force (emf)
Magnetic effects of electric currents⦾ Magnetic fields
⦾ Magnetic force

主題6:圓周運動和引力(Circular Motion and Gravitation)- SL和HL各5小時

SubtopicIB Points to Understand
Circular motion⦾ Period, frequency, angular displacement and angular velocity
⦾ Centripetal force
⦾ Centripetal acceleration
Newton’s law of gravitation⦾ Newton’s law of gravitation
⦾ Gravitational field strength

主題7:原子、核及粒子(Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics)- SL和HL各14小時

SubtopicIB Points to Understand
Discrete energy and radioactivity⦾ Discrete energy and discrete energy levels
⦾ Transitions between energy levels
⦾ Radioactive decay
⦾ Fundamental forces and their properties
⦾ Alpha particles, beta particles and gamma rays
⦾ Half-life
⦾ Absorption characteristics of decay particles
⦾ Isotopes
⦾ Background radiation
Nuclear reactions⦾ The unified atomic mass unit
⦾ Mass defect and nuclear binding energy
⦾ Nuclear fission and nuclear fusion
The structure of matter⦾ Quarks, leptons and their antiparticles
⦾ Hadrons, baryons and mesons
⦾ The conservation laws of charge, baryon number, lepton number and strangeness
⦾ The nature and range of the strong nuclear force, weak nuclear force and electromagnetic force
⦾ Exchange particles
⦾ Feynman diagrams
⦾ Confinement
⦾ The Higgs boson

主題8:能源生產(Energy Production)- SL和HL各8小時

SubtopicIB Points to Understand
Energy sources⦾ Specific energy and energy density of fuel sources
⦾ Sankey diagrams
⦾ Primary energy sources
⦾ Electricity as a secondary and versatile form of energy
⦾ Renewable and non-renewable energy sources
Thermal energy transfer⦾ Conduction, convection and thermal radiation
⦾ Black-body radiation
⦾ Albedo and emissivity
⦾ The solar constant
⦾ The greenhouse effect
⦾ Energy balance in the Earth surface–atmosphere system

主題9:波動現象(Wave Phenomena) – HL 17小時

SubtopicIB Points to Understand
Simple harmonic motion
⦾ The defining equation of SHM
⦾ Energy changes
Single-slit diffraction
⦾ The nature of single-slit diffraction
⦾ Young’s double-slit experiment
⦾ Modulation of two-slit interference pattern by one-slit diffraction effect
⦾ Multiple slit and diffraction grating interference patterns
⦾ Thin film interference
⦾ The size of a diffracting aperture
⦾ The resolution of simple monochromatic two-source systems
Doppler effect
⦾ The Doppler effect for sound waves and light waves

主題10:場(Fields) – HL 11小時

SubtopicIB Points to Understand
Describing fields
⦾ Gravitational fields
⦾ Electrostatic fields
⦾ Electric potential and gravitational potential
⦾ Field lines
⦾ Equipotential surfaces
Fields at work
⦾ Potential and potential energy
⦾ Potential gradient
⦾ Potential difference
⦾ Escape speed
⦾ Orbital motion, orbital speed and orbital energy
⦾ Forces and inverse-square law behaviour

主題11:電磁感應(Electromagnetic Induction) – HL 16小時

SubtopicIB Points to Understand
Electromagnetic induction
⦾ Electromotive force (emf)
⦾ Magnetic flux and magnetic flux linkage
⦾ Faraday’s law of induction
⦾ Lenz’s law
Power generation and transmission
⦾ Alternating current (ac) generators
⦾ Average power and root mean square (rms) values of current and voltage
⦾ Transformers
⦾ Diode bridges
⦾ Half-wave and full-wave rectification
⦾ Capacitance
⦾ Dielectric materials
⦾ Capacitors in series and parallel
⦾ Resistor-capacitor (RC) series circuits
⦾ Time constant

主題12:量子與核物理(Quantum and Nuclear Physics) – HL 16小時

SubtopicIB Points to Understand
The interaction of matter with radiation
⦾ Photons
⦾ The photoelectric effect
⦾ Matter waves
⦾ Pair production and pair annihilation
⦾ Quantization of angular momentum in the Bohr model for hydrogen
⦾ The wave function
⦾ The uncertainty principle for energy and time and position and momentum
⦾ Tunnelling, potential barrier and factors affecting tunnelling probability
Nuclear physics
⦾ Rutherford scattering and nuclear radius
⦾ Nuclear energy levels
⦾ The neutrino
⦾ The law of radioactive decay and the decay constant

IB Physics SL vs. HL: 選修

除了上述這些課程核心外,老師還可能會要你選修一些額外主題,SL 3-4個(約15小時)、HL 2-3個(約25小時)。

選項A: 相對性(Relativity) – SL和HL各15小時

SubtopicIB Points to Understand
The beginnings of relativity⦾ Reference frames
⦾ Galilean relativity and Newton’s postulates concerning time and space
⦾ Maxwell and the constancy of the speed of light
⦾ Forces on a charge or current
Lorentz transformations⦾ The two postulates of special relativity
⦾ Clock synchronization
⦾ The Lorentz transformations
⦾ Velocity addition
⦾ Invariant quantities (spacetime interval, proper time, proper length and rest mass)
⦾ Time dilation
⦾ Length contraction
⦾ The muon decay experiment
Spacetime diagrams⦾ Spacetime diagrams
⦾ Worldlines
⦾ The twin paradox

選項A: 相對性(Relativity) – HL 10小時以上

SubtopicIB Points to Understand
Relativistic mechanics
⦾ Total energy and rest energy
⦾ Relativistic momentum
⦾ Particle acceleration
⦾ Electric charge as an invariant quantity
⦾ Photons
⦾ MeV c^–2 as the unit of mass and MeV c^–1 as the unit of momentum
General Relativity
⦾ The equivalence principle
⦾ The bending of light
⦾ Gravitational redshift and the Pound–Rebka–Snider experiment
⦾ Schwarzschild black holes
⦾ Event horizons
⦾ Time dilation near a black hole
⦾ Applications of general relativity to the universe as a whole

選項B: 工程物理(Engineering Physics) – SL和HL各15小時

SubtopicIB Points to Understand
Rigid bodies and rotational dynamics⦾ Torque
⦾ Moment of inertia
⦾ Rotational and translational equilibrium
⦾ Angular acceleration
⦾ Equations of rotational motion for uniform angular acceleration
⦾ Newton’s second law applied to angular motion
⦾ Conservation of angular momentum
Thermodynamics⦾ The first law of thermodynamics
⦾ The second law of thermodynamics
⦾ Entropy
⦾ Cyclic processes and pV diagrams
⦾ Isovolumetric, isobaric, isothermal and adiabatic processes
⦾ Carnot cycle
⦾ Thermal efficiency

選項B: 工程物理(Engineering Physics) – HL 10小時以上

SubtopicIB Points to Understand
Fluids and fluid dynamics
⦾ Density and pressure
⦾ Buoyancy and Archimedes’ principle
⦾ Pascal’s principle
⦾ Hydrostatic equilibrium
⦾ The ideal fluid
⦾ Streamlines
⦾ The continuity equation
⦾ The Bernoulli equation and the Bernoulli effect
⦾ Stokes’ law and viscosity
⦾ Laminar and turbulent flow and the Reynolds number
Forced vibrations and resonance
⦾ Natural frequency of vibration
⦾ Q factor and damping
⦾ Periodic stimulus and the driving frequency
⦾ Resonance

選項C: 成像(Imaging) – SL和HL各15小時

SubtopicIB Points to Understand
Introduction to imaging⦾ Thin lenses
⦾ Converging and diverging lenses
⦾ Converging and diverging mirrors
⦾ Ray diagrams
⦾ Real and virtual images
⦾ Linear and angular magnification
⦾ Spherical and chromatic aberrations
Imaging instrumentation⦾ Optical compound microscopes
⦾ Simple optical astronomical refracting telescopes
⦾ Simple optical astronomical reflecting telescopes
⦾ Single-dish radio telescopes
⦾ Radio interferometry telescopes
⦾ Satellite-borne telescopes
Fibre optics⦾ Structure of optic fibres
⦾ Step-index fibres and graded-index fibres
⦾ Total internal reflection and critical angle
⦾ Waveguide and material dispersion in optic fibres
⦾ Attenuation and the decibel (dB) scale

選項C: 成像(Imaging) – HL 10小時以上

SubtopicIB Points to Understand
Medical imaging
⦾ Detection and recording of X-ray images in medical contexts
⦾ Generation and detection of ultrasound in medical contexts
⦾ Medical imaging techniques (magnetic resonance imaging) involving nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)

選項D: 天體物理學(Astrophysics) – SL和HL各15小時

SubtopicIB Points to Understand
Stellar quantities⦾ Objects in the universe
⦾ The nature of stars
⦾ Astronomical distances
⦾ Stellar parallax and its limitations
⦾ Luminosity and apparent brightness
Stellar characteristics and stellar evolution⦾ Stellar spectra
⦾ Hertzsprung–Russell (HR) diagram
⦾ Mass–luminosity relation for main sequence stars
⦾ Cepheid variables
⦾ Stellar evolution on HR diagrams
⦾ Red giants, white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes
⦾ Chandrasekhar and Oppenheimer–Volkoff limits
Cosmology⦾ The Big Bang model
⦾ Cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation
⦾ Hubble’s law
⦾ The accelerating universe and redshift (z)
⦾ The cosmic scale factor (R)

選項D: 天體物理學(Astrophysics) – HL 10小時以上

SubtopicIB Points to Understand
Stellar processes
⦾ The Jeans criterion
⦾ Nuclear fusion
⦾ Nucleosynthesis off the main sequence
⦾ Type Ia and II supernovae
Further cosmology
⦾ The cosmological principle
⦾ Rotation curves and the mass of galaxies
⦾ Dark matter
⦾ Fluctuations in the CMB
⦾ The cosmological origin of redshift
⦾ Critical density
⦾ Dark energy

IB物理 SL vs. HL:學生該如何選擇?

現在我們了解物理SL跟HL課程涵蓋了相同的8個主題,那什麼樣的學生合適 SL,什麼樣的學生又合適 HL 呢?

哪些學生合適選擇 Physics SL?

如果你是屬於下面這三種類型的學生,我們可能建議你選擇 Physics SL:

  1. 物理不是強項科目,大學也不打算讀物理系
  2. 大學不排除主修物理系,但物理有點難,上了 HL 可能會搞砸 IB 分數(概念上 SL 6 分 ”等於“ HL 5 分)
  3. 已經有其他三科更好拿高分的 HL 課程了,不需要物理也是 HL

哪些學生合適選擇 Physics HL?

如果你是屬於下面這三種類型的學生,我們可能建議你選擇 Physics HL:

  • 大學想主修(或不排除主修)物理系或其他 STEM 科系,而且物理對你來說也不會太難
  • 物理非常難,但你上 IB DP 所以必須選三門 SL 三門 HL,已經有其他三門更難的科目佔掉 SL 的名額了,物理只能上 HL
  • 物理有點難,但你認為物理很有意思,想多學一點相關知識



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